Moulton Laboratories
the art and science of sound
Many of the articles on these pages originally appeared in magazines such as Recording and TV Technology. Out of deference to the publishers involved, works written in the last two years will generally not be shown.
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About Acoustic and Microphone Levels: Levels Management I
How to engineer appropriate acoustical and audio levels in light of our ears' enormous range of dynamic sensitivity.
MixingRecording Magazine
March 1996
About Buying A Console
Moulton talks about the factors influencing our big ticket audio gear purchases; in particular, the console.
EquipmentMixingRecording Magazine
January 1994
About Comb Filtering, Phase Shift and Polarity Reversal
The phenomena of comb filtering, phase shift and polarity reversal are surrounded in myth and are a bedrock topic for audio engineers.
AcousticsMixingRecording Magazine
August 1993
About Playback And Mixing Levels: Levels Management II
How to set playback levels, for you and your end listeners.
MixingRecording Magazine
April 1996
Beyond Levels Management
What Exactly Do We Mean By Loud?
MixingRecording Magazine
January 1997
Beyond Spectral Management
Parametric Equalization for Fun and Profit
MixingRecording Magazine
March 1994
The Brave New World: Bad Audio
Dave discusses audio in TV world.
MixingTVTech Magazine
October 2001
End-User Systems
Engineers should consider how and where their music ends up being played. Moulton breaks the multitude of playback systems down into seven basic sonic environments.
LoudspeakersMixingRecording Magazine
May 1994
The Equal Loudness Contours
What They are and What They Mean for your Mixing
HearingMixingRecording Magazine
March 1997
A Fresh Approach to Equalization: the Tom Bates Way
Using EQ to make things sound better (instead of less bad).
MixingRecording Magazine
April 2004
From Stereo to Mono and Back
The Shortest Distance From A to B Is Definitely Not A Straight Line!
MixingRecording Magazine
July 1993
A Happy Accident: A Better Way to Play Back Stereo?
Examine a different surround sound configuration.
MixingTVTech Magazine
November 2003
The Pitfalls and Promises of the Center Channel
How to use the center channel in stereo as well as surround.
MixingTVTech Magazine
October 2003
Principles of Multitrack Mixing: The Kick Drum/Bass Relationship
Pop and rock means kick drum and bass. Mixing them well is essential.
MixingRecording Magazine
February 1993
Principles of Multitrack Mixing: The Phantom Image
The quirky natures of phantom images.
MixingRecording Magazine
December 1992
Principles of Multitrack Mixing: the Use of Early Delays
Early delays are those "echos" following the initial onset of a sound (usually room reflections), which effect a great impact on a sound's apparent quality.
AcousticsMixingRecording Magazine
November 1992
A Reader Asks About the “Aesthetics” of Audio Compression in Broadcasting
How to use black boxes when making compression decisions for broadcast.
MixingTVTech Magazine
March 2003
Spectral Management, or, Ways To Think About EQ and Mixing
Dave talks about the huge range of sounds we can hear and how these dimensions should be approached from a mixing standpoint.
HearingMixingRecording Magazine
March 1993
Stereo Reconsidered: A+B/A-B: Another Way of Mixing
Dave explains how to listen in A+B/A-B, or "Sum and Difference" Listening and Mixing.
MixingRecording Magazine
January 1993
Taming Wild Mastering Levels
Discussion of a critical development in the brave new world of digital audio: loudness inflation.
MixingRecording IndustryRecording Magazine
January 1999
Tips ‘n Tricks for Mastering
If Ya Gotta Master At Home, Some Thoughts On How To Minimize Your Pain
MixingRecording Magazine
September 2004
Way Beyond Spectral Management: Compression as Timbre
Dave discusses COMPRESSION. Y'know, making the soft stuff loud and the loud stuff soft.
MixingRecording Magazine
April 1994
What’s This Mastering Business, Anyway?
The final step of preparing a recording for release in its final format (such as a CD).
MixingRecording Magazine
September 1998